Book Volume 1
Page: i-i (1)
Author: Vincenzo Tufarelli
Page: ii-ii (1)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Page: iii-iv (2)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Page: 1-2 (2)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Page: 3-33 (31)
Author: Mayada R. Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Gihan G. Moustafa, Kuldeep Dhama and Nabela I. El- Sharkawy
The improvement in the growth of birds through the use of antibiotics could be obtained by reducing the count of harmful microorganisms, providing beneficial ones by suitable growth media, decreasing the thickness of gut mucosa and regulating the motility of gut, leading to better absorption of nutrients. However, achieving these desirable goals is not devoid of risks. Where, the frequent and improper use of antibiotics can reverse their therapeutic advantages through giving the opportunity to any existent microorganism to develop antibiotic resistance, which can hinder the effectiveness of antibiotics as chemotherapeutic or prophylactic agents in poultry. Additionally, antibiotic resistance genes can be transmitted to the natural environment and contaminate soil, water and plants. Moreover, the indiscriminate application of antibiotics could result in the accumulation of noticeable amounts of drug residues (the parent compounds or their injurious metabolites) in the edible tissues of poultry, including eggs and meat, which are very important sources in human feeding. The residues of antibiotics in poultry products can result in various pathological conditions and hazardous impacts on human health, such as being sensitive to antimicrobials in addition to allergy, cell mutations, imbalanced microbiota in the intestine and the development of bacteria resistance to antibiotics. This chapter describes the benefits and the hazards of using antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry feeding.
Page: 34-55 (22)
Author: Hamada A. M. Elwan, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mayada R. Farag, Rana M. Bilal, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack and Mahmoud Alagawany
The use of herbal plants as natural remedies is gaining immense global popularity in feeding systems of humans and animals including avian species due to their promising health benefits. Among the livestock sector, poultry production and regulations are in a continuous development, particularly in the field of nutrition, genetic, refinement, management and disease prevention, which could be probably achieved through regulation of the nutritional needs and the poultry production prerequisites. Therefore, this section is directed toward the use of herbs as a therapeutic and sustainable production tool, because of their health and economic benefits. This chapter will discuss and highlight the valuable impacts and the latest features of supplementing the livestock rations with garlic and rosemary herbs, including their promising natural growth promoting activities and useful applications in improving, performance, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility in addition to enhancing antioxidant capacity and immunological responses and this would be helpful for veterinarians, scientists, pharmacists, physiologists, pharmaceutical industries, nutritionists and poultry breeders.
Page: 56-66 (11)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Husein Ohran, Ayman E. Taha and Mahmoud Alagawany
The addition of antibiotics to poultry diets caused many cases of antibiotic residues and a large number of pathogens that are resistant to drugs. So there was an urgent need to use alternative medicine. Many studies have assured that Nigella sativa (black cumin) seeds might be an adequate replacement for standard therapeutic procedures like antibiotics in poultry. Nigella sativa plays a significant role in promoting the bird’s health and productivity, besides acting as a natural immunostimulant and antioxidant. The black seed oil contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and in this way, it lowers the total cholesterol content. Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, black cumin is proven to have anticancer effects. The present paper enumerates the natural benefits of Nigella sativa on nutritional and health aspects for poultry.
Page: 67-90 (24)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Ayman A. Swelum and Mahmoud Alagawany
Supplementations of livestock diets with herbs that have many active constituents revealed favourable effects as natural feed additives. These compounds could stimulate nutrient digestion, growth performance, food utilization, enhance immunological sides and antioxidant status and decrease health disorders. Various previous reports have employed mixture formulas of herbal with partial enclosure of licorice. However, the data about using licorice independently is very scared. The poultry industry faces many epidemiological syndromes; principally, those are confined to digestive, respiratory and immune system syndromes. Flavonoids and glycyrrhizin are the main bioactive components in Licorice. The roots of this herb contain 1-9% glycyrrhizin, which has several pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-heat stress, and anti-infective antiviral and antiinflammatory activities. Licorice extracts (LE) have affirmative impacts on the management of high incidence ailments, such as the immune system, lung, and liver disease. Licochalcone A (2-8μg/mL) inhibits cancer cell proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis in these cells . Moreover, the hepatoprotective effect of LE (100-300 mg) against CCI4-induced hepatic injury in rats has been observed. Studies suggested the potential role of LE (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 g/L of drinking water) in reducing serum total cholesterol of broiler chicken significantly. Also, the presence of licorice root extract (0.1 g/d) in the patient diet for 1 mo led to a decrease in plasma triglyceride (by about 14%) and cholesterol (by about 5%) levels. Moreover, dietary supplementation of LE plays a substantial role in the productive performance of poultry owing to the improvement of organ development and stimulating influence on digestion and appetite. Along with its growth promoting properties, licorice has antioxidant, detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and many more health benefits as enclosed in the current chapter. This chapter highlights the favourable applications and modern features of Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) herb, including its chemical composition and maintenance of the health status of poultry. Hence, it will be highly useful for nutritionists, physiologists, pharmacists, veterinarians, and poultry producers.
Page: 91-105 (15)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Gaber E. Batiha and Mahmoud Alagawny
Origanum Vulgare (OV) is a member of the family Lamiaceae which grows naturally in the Mediterranean area. It is a less toxic, residue-free and standard natural feed additive for poultry. There were many promoting characteristics of oregano dependent on its bioactive constituents as carvacrol and thymol. It possesses many properties, including antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antiparasitic and immunomodulatory. The possible benefits of utilizing OV in the poultry sector include enhancement of the growth, feed utilization, feed efficiency and improvement of the absorption and digestion and consequently a better productive performance. On the other hand, OV can reduce the disease occurrence and economic losses. The inclusion of oregano essential oil [OEO] in broiler diets at levels of 0.6-1% enhanced the growth performance and reduced the mortality in the broiler herds. Remarkable enhancement on the intestinal microbiota, fewer fermentation products andenhanced intestinal mucus synthesis and intestinal cell functionality have been observed by 15 mg/kg of OEO, reflecting a whole better intestinal equilibrium in poultry. Dietary supplementation of OEO at 300-ppm displayed higher IgG titers and enhanced the immune responses in the broiler. Bioactive ingredients isolated from OV could be employed in poultry feeding. To acheive the best productivity of poultry, oregano feed supplements should be used as an alternative to antibiotics and drugs due to the absence of side effects and residual impacts. The present chapter provides evidence on the usage of OV and its products in poultry feeding besides their application as feed additives in the poultry industry.
Page: 106-119 (14)
Author: Muhammad Asif Arain, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Umar, Nasrullah, Feroza Soomro, Mayada R. Farag and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Quinoa is a grain-like food crop with a higher nutritional value compared to other cereals. It has been reported to be an excellent source of fiber, protein, lipids, minerals, amino acids and vitamins. Quinoa represents a good source of fiber (10%), which is much higher than that of wheat 2.7%, corn 1.7%, and rice 0.4%. The quinoa seed comprises protein (120-180 g/kg), which contains a better-balanced amino acid composition than conventional crops such as cereals. Quinoa also contains several beneficial health compounds, including phytoecdysteroids, phytosterols, saponins, betalains, glycine and phenolics. Dietary supplementation of quinoa has shown significant effects on growth performance, public health and production performance of large and small animals. Birds fed diets supplemented with quinoa at a low level (50 g/kg) had achieved a better performance without any adverse effects. But the high level (150 g/kg diet) of quinoa reduced live body weight at 20 days of age from 627 to 601 g and at 39 days of age from 1760 to 1709 g, respectively, while feed conversion ratio was increased from 1437 to 1486 g feed kg-1 live body weight at 20 days of age. Birds fed a diet enriched with 30 g/100 Kg recorded higher body weight and feed intake compared to those fed on 10 g/100 Kg and the control group. Supplementation of 40 or 80 mg/kg of iso-flavones increased total antioxidant capacity in the blood of chickens.Hitherto, there is a gap in the knowledge base of quinoa as a feed additive, which is not widely considered in poultry feeds. Thus, this chapter aims to find the medicinal and nutritional importance of quinoa to boost the performance and health in poultry farming.
Page: 120-138 (19)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mohammed A. E. Naiel, Samar S. Negm, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Sabry A.A. El-Sayed, Sarah Y.A. Ahmed, Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany
In the last decade, poultry nutritionists were particularly interested in inspecting relevant natural antibiotic alternatives to be used in poultry feeding to reduce the competitive efficacy of bacterial resistance and its residuals in poultry products. Using antibiotics and hormones in feed not only raises production costs but they also get incorporated into the processing of meat and eggs and increase microbial resistance. Several synthetic medicine and growth promoters are fortified into broilers diets for fast growth. However, their use still shows some drawbacks, such as high costs, adverse side effects on bird health, and extended residual properties. Thus, the primary aim of poultry production is to obtain higher performance through increasing the feed efficiency besides getting safety products for consumption. Due to their nutritional and immunological effects, such as improved feed efficiency, regulation of endogenous digestive enzymes, immune response stimulation, antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties, medicinal plants seem to be of great importance. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a useful medicinal herb belonging to the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is inherent to the Asian subcontinent. It has numerous medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic activities, and other beneficial health applications. Furthermore, turmeric contains several biologically active compounds such as curcumin, bisdemethoxy curcumin, demethoxy-curcumin, and tetrahydrocurcuminoids, which may be responsible for these beneficial effects. Besides, turmeric is safe due to its low toxicity index and could be effective against aflatoxin-induced mutagenicity and hepatocarcinogenicity. In this chapter, we will discuss the valuable effects of turmeric in terms of the production, carcass traits, and ameliorative role in bird .
Page: 139-153 (15)
Author: Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Sajjad Khan, Muhammad Asif Arain, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is an annual summer crop that belongs to the Labiate family. Chia seeds are a rich source of nutrients like polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA), which safeguard against inflammation, improve performance and could be used for the enrichment of eggs and meat with omega-3 contents in poultry. These seeds are also rich in polyphenols, which can protect the body against cancer, aging and free radicals. Quercetin, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, caffeic acid, and myricetin are reported as valuable sources of antioxidants in chia seed. It is believed that these seeds have antidepressant, anti-blood clotting, and hepato-protective features, along with anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. They have a positive role in diabetes, dyslipidemia, antianxiety, hypertension and constipation in humans. Furthermore, it is a potential source of dietary fiber, which helps to support the gastrointestinal function. Chia seeds also have a high concentration of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, vitamins and minerals. Chia seeds contain a good balance of non-essential and essential amino acids. The addition of chia seed in poultry feed resulted in an increase of omega-3 fatty acids content in both eggs and meat. Moreover, it also offers advantages over other sources of PUFA for poultry feeding due to the absence of adverse effects on bird’s health. Chia seeds do not have any toxic compounds or anti-nutritional factors and have been added to poultry feed up to 30%, which proved it as a safe feed ingredient for poultry diets. However, further studies are required to explore its potential application as a promising feed additive, growth promoter and antioxidant for commercial poultry diets.
Page: 154-175 (22)
Author: Zohaib A. Bhutto, Muhammad A. Arain, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Umar, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani, Nasrullah, Feroza Soomro, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Muhammad Saeed, Mayada R. Farag, Ahmed Noreldin and Kuldeep Dhama
The beneficial uses of natural herbal plants in medical sciences have achieved great attention due to promising health benefits in comparison with synthetic pharmaceutics. Cassia fistula (CF) is one of the most famous medicinal plants due to its broad range of incredible biological functions, such as laxative or purgative, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antitussive, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic and wound healing as well. Moreover, flavonoids derived from CF, such as tannins and glycosides, exhibit a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities and low toxic effects. Previously most studies discussed in vitro-based models, humans, and rodents. The aim of this review is to highlight the medicinal importance of CF on the production performance of animals. Up to now, there are still many research areas waiting to be explored, such as finding out the metabolic pathway of flavonoids of CF in different animal models, mainly focus on poultry. Therefore, the present chapter aimed to attract attention to health-promoting and medicinal uses of this plant in poultry and animals. The above-mentioned research will provide further medicinal development of this genus.
Page: 176-190 (15)
Author: Ahmed Noreldin, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mayada R. Farag, Hamada A. M. Elwan and Mahmoud Alagawany
Utilizing novel rations in chicken feeding in developing countries has drawn considerable interest in the recent few years. Moringa oleifera is originally planted in India. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions all over the world. It is famous as ‘drumstick tree’ or ‘horseradish tree’. Moringa can bear both aridity rime and intense moderate conditions. Thus, it is vastly planted in numerous soils. Each part of this tree is convenient for either nutritional or merchant targets. In general, it has elevated nutritious values. Leaves contain a high amount of minerals, essential phytochemicals and vitamins. Leaves can be utilized to cure undernourishment. In addition, it could be utilized as a prospective antioxidant, an anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Moringa contains a crude protein that varies from 71.2 to 391.7 g/kg, and varying parts of this plant are the reason for this variation. But Moringa holds anti-nutritional factors like phytates, trypsin inhibitors, oxalates, tannins, saponins and cyanide that negatively influence the metabolism of protein and mineral, as well its bioavailability to the chick. Phosphorus bioavailability can be boosted by adding phytase to the diet, which breaks down phytate that binds phosphorus. Previous studies demonstrated that the integration of Moringa in poultry diets could enhance productive performance traits and chickens' growth. Thus, this chapter compiles the usage and possible toxicity of Moringa oleifera and its characterization. In addition, the nutritional composition, phytochemicals, antioxidants of Moringa oleifera leaf meal and its application in poultry diets are also outlined.
Page: 191-200 (10)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan Khan, Rashed Chowdhury, Mayada R. Farag, Rana M. Bilal and Mohamed E. Abd El- Hack
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a famous herbal plant used as a potent antioxidant since ancient times with abundant health benefits. Numerous studies have shown the health benefits of green tea for many diseases. The objective of this article is to know the importance and various uses of green tea and its important constituents in poultry for safeguarding various health issues. The present review article also focuses on several beneficial health applications and salient medicinal properties of green tea that have not been comprehensively reviewed previously. Owing to the bioactive constituents, including caffeine, amino acids (AA), L-theanine, polyphenols/ flavonoids and carbohydrates, among other potent molecules, green tea has many pharmacological and physiological characteristics. Moreover, Camellia sinensis possesses essential biological compounds such as alkaloids, carotenoids, minerals, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and volatile compounds. Based on scientific literature evidence, green tea has multifunctional applications in livestock animal sectors of dairy, goat and poultry industry. Green tea active ingredients have been shown to possess many health benefits with various mechanisms like antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antistress, hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, skin/collagen protective, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-infective, anti-parasitic, anti-cancerous, inhibition of tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, and improving memory and bone health. The findings presented would be useful for poultry researchers and farmers and would help to propagate the multidimensional health benefits of green tea.
Page: 201-224 (24)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mohamed T. El-saadony, Nahed Yehia, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany
With the rapid growth of the poultry sector, a major human health concern is noticed relating to the excessive and uncontrolled abuse of antibiotics, which leads to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are used in sub-therapeutic doses as antimicrobial agents for rapid growth performance in poultry and for prevention of diseases. For this reason, there is a need to develop alternatives to antibiotics. The beneficial effects of plants and plant extracts that have traditional use are evaluated in many studies. The most common beneficial effects of these plants and their extracts are stimulating endogenous digestive enzymes and antioxidants. Essential oils (EOs) have a wide variety of effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidants, and digestive stimulant activities. Essential oils have been demonstrated to positively affect growth performance, gut health, and meat quality, but the responses are inconsistent. The inconsistencies have been related to the species/subspecies of the plant, harvest time, geographical location, and plant part used that can affect the EOs structure. The oils undergo a patented micro fusion process that creates a surface area of oil droplets that is 20 times greater than other commercially available oilsthus increasing the stability and effectiveness of the oils. The EOs exhibit high antioxidant activity, which is attributed to its two main phenols, carvacrol, and thymol. Conclusively, essential oils can be used in poultry nutrition, but still need more studies, especially metabolism, and the optimum dose in various poultry species.
Page: 225-239 (15)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Elwy A. Ashour, Muhammad Arif, Maria Tabassum Chaudhry, Mohamed Emam, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Ayman E. Taha, Dairon Más, Kuldeep Dhama, Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany
Organic acids (OAs) have been used as natural preservatives for food products and as hygiene promoters to inhibit microbial growth, thereby improving the freshness and shelf-life of food items. The impact of OAs on microbial growth makes it an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. The characteristic of inhibiting microbial growth is a useful feature that has been recently used in poultry production. Organic acids are chemically weak, and they modulate the beneficial competitive exclusion in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and diminish the production of metabolites harmful to the body by decreasing the proliferation and colonization of pathogenic bacteria in the GIT. Further, they improve the ability of the intestinal wall to absorb nutrients by improving the structure of the villi and the digestive secretions that lead to enhanced absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. The use of 15g/kg of citric acid in broiler diets reduced the cecal total bacterial count and Enterobacteriaceae by 62.26% and 80%, respectively, in comparison with control. However, the same level of fumaric acid reduced the cecal total bacterial count and Enterobacteriaceae by 88.63 and 78.57%, respectively. Similarly, the inclusion of 30g/kg of fumaric acid reduced the cecal total bacterial count and Enterobacteriaceae by 95.84 and 88.57%, respectively. The immunity of broilers can thus be improved as a normal consequence of all previously mentioned advantages. The use of 0.30 g/kg blends of sorbic acid, fumaric acid, and thymol improved the spleen size of broiler chickens by 50% when compared to control. Dietary inclusion of formic acid up to 5 and 10 g/kg significantly improved feed conversion ratio by 9.37 and 16.66% and improved ileal digestibility of crude protein by 19.85 and 21.08%, respectively. This chapter summarizes the possible modes of action of dietary OAs and their effects on the growth and health of poultry.
Page: 240-261 (22)
Author: Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mohammed A. E. Naiel, Samar S. Negm, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Mayada R. Farag, Shaaban S. Elnesr and Mahmoud Alagawany
Antibiotics have been commonly used as growth enhancers to promote performance and feed efficiency in poultry production. It is essential to find new and safe alternative compounds to antibiotics due to their numerous harmful effects, such as antibiotic resistance, destruction of the gastrointestinal microbiota community, and dysbacteriosis. Improving poultry production using probiotics as feed additives is one of the decent alternative options to antibiotics. Probiotics are described as “living microorganisms that confer a benefit on the host health when applied in adequate quantities”. Probiotics as feed additives help in feed digestion by creating the nutrients in an available form to grow faster. Also, poultry diets supplemented with probiotics improve immunity status. Besides, fortified poultry diets with probiotics enhance meat characterization and egg quality traits. Additionally, the use of probiotics in poultry feed could prevent various infectious diseases. Thus, obtaining optimum results requires a good selection of probiotic strains. This chapter focuses on the probiotics’ mode of action and their relevance in poultry diet supplementation to improve production and preserve poultry health.
Page: 262-284 (23)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Mayada R. Farag, Shaaban S. Elnesr and Mohamed S. El-Kholy
The prefix “Nano” comes from the Latin word “nanus”, which means “dwarf”. Nanotechnology can be defined as the manipulation of materials at the nanoscale as it deals with particles sized between 1-100 nm. Nanotechnology, can open up opportunities for improving feed particles' utilization to the benefit of livestock production. Nanotechnology can also act as new vehicle for nutrient delivery to improve the digestion and absorption pathway for better nutrient metabolism. Minerals administered in the nanoparticle form as feed additives can pass through the wall of intestinal cells and other body cells more speedily than ordinary minerals, thus boosting their bioavailability. Therefore, nanotechnology can be used in animal feed to improve production performance, nutrient bioavailability, and livestock's immune response after considering nanotechnology's social, economic, legal and ethical implications. In conclusion, nanotechnology applications can provide solutions for poultry and livestock production systems to enhance the final product quality.
Page: 285-295 (11)
Author: Mahmoud Alagawany and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Natural Feed Additives Used in the Poultry Industry addresses recent information on the use of different natural feed additives in poultry nutrition. Chapters in the book focus on the growth, production, reproduction and health of poultry. Key Features: - 15 chapters contributed by more than 30 experts and scientists involved in animal and poultry nutrition, physiology, toxicology, pharmacology, and pathology - Chapters highlight the significance of a variety of herbal plant extracts and derivatives, cold pressed and essential oils, fruits by-products, immunomodulators, organic acids, probiotics, nanoparticles and their role in poultry industry instead of the growth promoter antibiotics. - Provides details about the use of antibiotic as growth promoters in poultry and the development of bacterial resistance. - Provides a holistic approach on how natural feed additives can provide an efficient solution to animal health, - Covers the main categories of poultry, including broiler chickens, laying hens, quails, geese, ducks, and turkey. - References in each chapter for further reading This handbook represents an up-to-date review of the existing knowledge on natural feed additives, both in vitro and in vivo and the basis for future research. The text is useful to students of poultry sciences, nutritionists, scientists, veterinarians, pharmacologists, poultry breeders, and animal husbandry extension workers.