Book Volume 3
Page: i-ii (2)
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Sammer Yousuf
Page: iii-v (3)
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Sammer Yousuf
Page: 1-32 (32)
Author: Gloria Sarahi Castañeda-Ramirez, Javier Ventura-Cordero, Gloria Ivonne Hernández-Bolio, Gonzalo Silva-Aguayo, Manuel Carrillo-Morales, Gabriela Oropeza-Guzman, Blanca Aguilar-Figueroa, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Blanca E. Álvarez-Fernández and Liliana Aguilar-Marcelino
The most prevalent helminths are the gastrointestinal nematodes, such as the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus of sheep. Other economically important nematodes are phytoparasites, Nacobbus aberrans and Meloidogyne incognita, affecting more than 200 crops of plants and vegetables such as tomatoes, among others. Regarding the cestodes and Hymenolepis nana are the most prevalent worldwide. These helminths occur in warm temperate and dry geographical areas of developing countries with poor sanitary habits affecting mainly children between 2-8 years old. The conventional control is the use of anthelmintics (e.g. macrocyclic lactones, benzimidazoles and imidazoles) of synthetical origin; however, the misuse of these anthelmintics has led to a problem of chemical resistance worldwide; in addition, the residuality of these compounds in sheep byproducts, such as meat and milk, has caused a negative environmental impact. They also damage populations of beneficial organisms, such as the dung beetle, earthworms and nematophagous mites, among others. Hence, it is urgent and necessary to search for other integral, environmentally friendly, and sustainable control methods. The use of medicinal plants, mainly spices and culinary herbs, could be a sustainable alternative to control helminths that affect humans, plants and animals. This chapter presents an overview of the anthelmintic properties of cinnamon for sustainable helminth parasites control. This chapter is divided into several topics including 1) biology of cinnamon, 2) traditional and molecular taxonomic description of cinnamon, 3) metabolites reported in cinnamon, 4) uses of cinnamon as a condiment, 5) antiparasitic properties of cinnamon, 6) anthelmintic properties against agricultural pests, 7) anthelmintic properties against livestock pests and productive performance, 8) advances and perspectives of cinnamon in the control of anthelmintic properties, and 9) perspectives on the study of the anthelmintic properties of cinnamon.
Page: 33-65 (33)
Author: S. Aishwarya, Kounaina Khan, Anirudh Gururaj Patil, Pankaj Satapathy, Aishwarya T. Devi, M.G. Avinash, S.M. Veena, Shubha Gopal, M.N. Nagendra, K. Muthucheliyan, Shivaprasad Hudeda, Farhan Zameer and Sunil S. More
Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) plant has a dominion for its usage in culinary additional to medicinal and nutritional value globally. It is used as a preservative and savory in Indian dishes from time immemorial. Traditional nutritional constituents and its significance with respect to leaf, flower, fruits and seeds have been reported in folklore and Ayurvedic practice. This chapter primarily focuses on the various bioactivities (anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antidote, anti-diabetic) and their probable known mode of action in combating the disorder/disease. Further, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were performed with lead phytobioactives to understand potential pathways. However, with the tamarind fruit and seeds, many controversial myths also exist. This comprehensive chapter depicts and contemplates the unexplored science of this Devils’ tree with Sour date which is extensively used in nutritional, pharmaceutical with pharmacological attributes with clinical significance “Making Food as Medicine”.
An Overview of The Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Fruit: A Potential source of Nutritional and Health Promoting Phytoconstituents
Page: 66-74 (9)
Author: F. Lucy Oyetayo and I. Adebayo Odeniyi
The Tamarind fruit is an arboreal fruit of the Tamarind plant (Tamarindus indica), an unconventional fruiting tree that grows mostly in the wild. The fruit contains phytoconstituents with important food and therapeutic applications. The fruit extract has been shown to possess antimicrobial and health-promoting activities such as antioxidative, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic properties. It is an important flavoring agent in food and beverage processing due to the aroma of its flavor constituents. The fruit is a potential source of readily available, affordable, natural nutritive, and medicinal components that can be exploited as a healthpromoting food for the developing world.
Page: 75-112 (38)
Author: Elin Y. Sukandar and Dhyan K. Ayuningtyas
Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), which belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, is one of the most well-known and thoroughly studied medicinal plants, and is also one of the few medicinal plants that have been scientifically proven to be beneficial to human health. The most frequently used part of turmeric is the rhizome, for which several studies have reported to contain high levels of beneficial essential oils and numerous chemical constituents. One of the most well-studied chemical constituents of turmeric is curcumin, which has exhibited the ability to target multiple signaling pathways while also demonstrating certain pharmacological activities at the cellular level in preclinical studies. Advancing these preclinical studies, numerous clinical studies on various diseases involving turmeric-based medication have been conducted, including dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcer, and cancer lesions, among various other diseases. We report an extensive examination of the clinical aspect of turmeric and turmeric-based medication, including its isolates. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art clinical studies involving turmeric and its effects on various diseases.
Page: 113-125 (13)
Author: Bhushan P. Pimple, Amrita M. Kulkarni and Ruchita B. Bhor
Origanum majorana Linn. (Majorana hortensis) is an aromatic herb of Lamiaceae. The plant is native to Mediterranean and European parts, but can be cultivated easily in all tropical regions. The leaves and flowers are characterized by a pleasant aromatic odour that increases its scope for perfumery and food industries. Besides its culinary & perfumery importance, O. majorana has therapeutic relevance in the management of diabetes, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), gastric ulcers, leukemia, breast adenocarcinoma, free radical scavenging, etc. The proposed chapter focuses on traditional uses, culinary and perfumery applications, recent advancements in phytochemistry and pharmacotherapeutics of Origanum majorana.
Page: 126-153 (28)
Author: Priyanka Soni, Vishal Soni and Naveen Kumar Choudhary
Piper nigrum (family Piperaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant. Black pepper is one of the important spices, rich in aromatic and medicinal components along with an appreciable level of several other functional components having healthpromoting properties. It contains major pungent alkaloid. Many investigators have isolated different types of compounds, i.e. Phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, amides and steroids, lignans, neo-lignans, terpenes and many other compounds. Some of the compounds are Brachyamide B, Dihydropipericide(2E,4E)-N-Eicosadienol- pereridine, N-trans-Feruloyltyramine, N-Formyl piperidine, (2E,4E)-N-isobuty ldecadienamid, isobutyl-eicosadienamide, Tricholein, Trichostachine, isobutyleicosatrienamide, Isobutyl-octadienamide, Piperamide, Piperamine, Piperettine, Pipericide, Piperine, Piperolein B, Sarmentine, Sarmentosine, Retrofractamide A. Black pepper is used as a medicinal agent, a preservative, and in perfumery. Whole Peppercorn of Piper nigrum or its active components is being used in different types of foods and as medicine. Piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine) is known to possess many interesting pharmacological actions such as antihypertensive and antiplatelets, antioxidant, antitumor, antiasthmatics, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, anxiolytic, antidepressants, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-thyroids, antiapoptotic, anti-metastatic, antimutagenic, anti-spermatogenic, anti-Colon toxin, insecticidal and larvicidal activities, etc. Piperine has been found to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of many drugs, vaccines and nutrients by increasing oral bioavailability and by inhibiting various metabolizing enzymes. It is also known to enhance cognitive action and fertility. Piperine is also found to stimulate the pancreatic and intestinal enzymes which aid in digestion. Many therapeutic activities of this spice are attributed to the presence of piperine apart from other chemical constituents. Piper nigrum is also used as a flavoring agent. Recently, many studies have shown anticancer activities of piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in black pepper and some other Piper species. The collected preclinical data can be useful in the design of future researches especially clinical trials with piperine. It is, therefore, concluded that black pepper and its bioactive compound, piperine exhibit wide spectrum therapeutic potential and have also emerged as an excellent adjuvant to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the concurrently administered drugs and nutrients.
Page: 154-169 (16)
Author: Ashish Singhai, Vipin Dhote and Aman Upaganlawar
Coriandrum sativum is an aromatic, glabrous, and annual herb of height 30- 90 cm belonging to family Apiaceae. Its volatile oil content (~1%) has linalool (60- 70%) as a major component, and also has limonene, borneol, phenolic acid, citronellol, and flavonoids, etc. Conventionally, it is used for various purposes, for example. in inflammatory bowel diseases, post-coital anti-fertility activity, anxiety relief, sleeping disorder, and a digestive aid. It is also known for its various pharmacological properties, such as antibacterial, anti-mutagenic, anxiolytic effect, anthelmintic, antioxidant, acute diuretic. Storage of ground coriander should be in an opaque and tightly closed container as it loses aroma and flavor quickly. It synergizes the pharmacological effects with certain oils, including eucalyptus and dill oil. Various clinical studies also highlight the evidence generated by preclinical investigations. This study on Coriandrum sativum deals with the compilation of its vast pharmacological applications with pharmacognostic and phytochemical information, as it is gaining importance as a therapeutically effective medicinal agent from various scientific reports.
Page: 170-188 (19)
Author: Vishal Soni and Priyanka Soni
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), from the family Linaceae, is a blue blossoming yearly spice that produces shorts seeds fluctuating from golden yellow to ruddy earthy colored shading. Flaxseed has a fresh surface and nutty taste. Flaxseed oil is believed to bring mental and physical perseverance by battling weariness and controlling the maturing procedure. Flaxseed is rich in dietary dissolvable and insoluble strands. Because of its high substance of lignans, it plays an important role in the reduction of joint inflammation, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, phytoestrogens malady, malignant growth, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurological issues. Flaxseed has also been reported to act as anti-arrhythmic, anti-atherogenic, and improving the vascular functions. Among the useful nourishments, flaxseed has risen as a potential utilitarian food containing alphalinolenic acid, lignans, great protein, and soluble fiber. Flaxseed cotyledons are the significant oil stockpiling tissues, containing 75% of the seed oil. Flaxseed oil contains 98% triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and 0.1% free unsaturated fats. Flaxseeds also contain a decent measure of phenolic mixes. It fills in a decent amount of minerals particularly, phosphorous (650 mg/100 g), magnesium (350–431 mg/100 g), calcium (236–250 mg/100 g), and has an exceptionally low measure of sodium (27 mg/100 g). It is also associated with the supplementation of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseeds have various biological and pharmacological effects like anti-diabetic, cancer reducing effects, hypocholesterolemic and cardiovascular diseases, prevention of kidney diseases, prevention and treatment of obesity, irritable bowel syndrome antithrombotic, etc.
Different clinical preliminaries revealed that flaxseed constituents give infection preventive and restorative advantages. More in vivo examinations are required to determine the medical advantages of flaxseed constituents. To know its remedial potential for all populace, including pregnant and lactating ladies and to realize potential issues associated with its overdose, a study needs to be carried out. There is a requirement for the advancement of fast, reproducible, and financial procedures for the examination of nutraceuticals from flaxseed.
Cleaning the flaxseed ought to be viewed as a significant advance in decreasing the microbial tallies. Impacts of cleaning flaxseed on microbial burdens including aerobic plate counts (APCs), mold counts (MCs) yeast counts (YCs), coliform counts (CCs), Escherichia coli counts, and Enterobacteriaceae counts (ECs) were resolved. Flaxseeds contain enemies of supplements that may have an antagonistic impact on the wellbeing and prosperity of the human populace.Cyanogenic glycosides are the significant enemies of supplements in the digestive system. cyanogenic glycosides discharge hydrogen cyanide, a powerful respiratory inhibitor, by intestinal β-glycosidase that produces thiocyanates. Thiocyanates meddle with iodine take-up by the thyroid organ and create iodine-insufficiency issues, goiter, and cretinism. In this survey, supplements, useful properties, digestion, and medical advantages of bioactive particles viz., basic unsaturated fats, lignans, and dietary fiber of flaxseed will be discussed.
Page: 189-196 (8)
Author: Atta-ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Sammer Yousuf
Many herbs and spices, in addition to their culinary use for taste, contain chemical compounds which have medicinal uses. For this reason, herbs and spices have been used for treating various ailments since ancient times. Modern scientific methods have enabled researchers to isolate bioactive compounds from herbs and spices and perform chemical analyses, which can be used to develop medicines to treat different diseases. This book series is a compilation of current reviews on studies performed on herbs and spices. Science of Spices and Culinary Herbs is essential reading for medicinal chemists, herbalists and biomedical researchers interested in the science of natural herbs and spices that are common part of regional diets and folk medicine. The third volume of this series features the following reviews: 1. Anthelmintic Properties of Cinnamon for the Control of Agricultural and Public Health Pests 2. Nutraceutical Attributes of Tamarindus indica L. - Devils’ Tree with Sour Date 3. An Overview of the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Fruit: A Potential source of Nutritional and Health promoting Phytoconstituents 4. The Clinical Overview of Turmeric, Turmeric-based Medicines, and Turmeric Isolates 5. Origanum majorana: The Fragrance of Health 6. Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.): The King of Spices 7. Coriander: A Herb with Multiple Benefits 8. Flax Seed (Linum usitatissimum) a Potential Functional Food Source