Book Volume 1
Page: i-ii (1)
Author: Celile Aylin Oluk and Oya Berkay Karaca
Page: iii-iv (2)
Author: Celile Aylin Oluk and Oya Berkay Karaca
Page: 1-52 (52)
Author: Sandra Mojsova, Erhan Sulejmani*, Natasha Mateva, Vesna Levkov, Sonja Srbinovska and Dushica Santa
Traditional cheeses are specific products of the Republic of North Macedonia, mainly produced in small-scale farms or farm houses located in high mountains and rural areas. Some of the best-known cheese types are produced in almost all regions in North Macedonia: kashkaval, white brined cheese and beaten cheese (“bieno sirenje”). These types of cheese can also be found in other Balkan countries, only with different tastes and properties. Kashkaval is a type of hard yellow cheese with a natural rind and it belongs to the Pasta filata cheese group. Traditionally, it is made from sheep milk. White brined cheese is the most commonly consumed type of cheese that can be produced from sheep, cow and goat milk. Beaten cheese is a type of yellow hard cheese and the scalding procedure is a crucial step in its production. The great diversity in the manufacturing procedures results with variations in the physical, chemical and microbiological composition, as well as with variations in the proteolysis, the texture, and volatiles. In this chapter, the properties of cheese, the cheese-making technology and the artisan culture of the traditional cheese varieties in the Republic of North Macedonia are discussed.
Page: 53-70 (18)
Author: Slavko Mirecki* and Kirdar Seval Sevgi
Milk production and processing have been the main activities of most of the Montenegrin agricultural population, for centuries. That's why, there is a wide range of traditional dairy products that take primary place in Montenegrin meal, both during history and today. From a wide range of traditional dairy products, the most famous, the highest quality and, according to the quantity of production and consumption, the most common cheeses are Pljevaljski, Njeguški, Lisnati, and Prljo. They are all characterized by high nutritional value, piquant, unique and specific aromas. Pljevaljski cheese is full fat, soft cheese that ripens in the wooden vat for at least 4 weeks. During ripening the cheese acquires a pleasant milky-sour taste and odour, white to yellowish colour and a compact texture suitable for slicing. Lisnati cheese belongs to pasta filata cheeses. The name Lisnati was given because of its very unusual form of slices that are extremely thin as a leaf (“lisnati” = “leafy”). It is partially skimmed, semi-hard to soft cheese that can be consumed as fresh or as ripened cheese. The most popular semi-hard cheese in Montenegro is Njeguški cheese. It is typical semi-hard, full-fat cheese. The specialty of this cheese is that, after ripening on shelves, cheese can be put into the olive oil where it continues to ripen. Mature cheese, especially cheese from olive oil, has an extremely spicy taste. The low-fat, semi-hard cheese Prljo is produced in the northwestern, mountainous region of Montenegro. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the main phases in production technology and the chemical composition of the most important traditional Montenegrin dairy products.
Page: 71-83 (13)
Author: Jadranka Frece*, Deni Kostelac, Marija Vrdoljak, Iva Čanak, Željko Jakopović, Marko Jelić and Ksenija Markov
Sack cheese is a highly regarded traditional cheese matured anaerobically in lambskin, still produced in local communities in the south of Croatia (Dalmatian region). Even though the production has been adapted to new technologies, the basic production parameters and cheese properties remain unchanged and unique. Lambskin cheese is prepared from unpasteurised sheep's, cow's and goat's milk and their mixtures, according to the technology of semi-hard cheese production, without the addition of starter cultures. Milk is acidified with its natural microflora. The specific characteristic of this cheese is an anaerobic maturation that takes about 2 months in lamb or goatling skin locally called a sack. Due to the intense processes of lipolysis and proteolysis during ripening, mature cheeses have a specific and highly appreciated spicy flavour and aroma. According to the moisture content in the non-fat dry substance, these cheeses may belong to a group of hard or semi-hard cheeses, and by the fat content in the total dry matter, they may be full or reduced fat cheeses. Production of sack cheese takes place in small batches on family farms and has a mostly local character. The best way to preserve specific quality of traditional cheese is to use an indigenous starter culture, however, lambskin cheese is traditionally produced without adding one. Biochemical analysis of milk, used for lambskin cheese, identified indigenous bacterial species, among which the most important are Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus curvatus and Staphylococcus xylosus.
Page: 84-129 (46)
Author: Maria C. E. Ribeiro*, Débora P. Baptista, Mayara S. Queirós, Karina S. Chaves and Oya B. Karaca
Agriculture sector is considered one of the most important economic activities in Brazil contributing to the growth of the country's economy. According to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), Brazil is the fourth largest producer and consumer of cheeses and behind Russia, the United States, and the European Union. The cheese production in Brazil was consolidated with the arrival of European immigrants, especially Dutch, Danish, and Italians. Brazilian cheese market was diversified and currently presents a wide variety inspired in European cheeses like Prato cheese and typically Brazilian cheeses such as Requeijão, Coalho cheese, Manteiga cheese, and Minas cheese. The growing knowledge of biochemical and microbiological characteristics of the cheese allowed the establishment of manufacturing technologies for the production in the industrial scale of some cheese varieties that were previously made in a totally artisanal way. In order to strengthen the artisanal production and the regionality of some cheese varieties, including those produced from raw milk, the Brazilian legislation has been endeavoring to ensure cheese microbiological quality, especially regarding raw milk quality and minimum ripening time. This attempt for improving the Brazilian legislation aims to ensure the traditional production and the insertion of small producers into the market. This chapter will present an overview of the cheese industry in Brazil, the history, regional characteristics, manufacturing technology, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory aspects of the main cheeses, as well as the challenges encountered by the artisanal producers and the dairy industry.
Page: 130-141 (12)
Author: Mostafa Soltani*
Ewes’ milk and goats’ milk and dairy products manufactured from them have an important role in the life of the people living in local areas of Iran. Lighvan and Koozeh (Koopeh) are the most known Iranian traditional cheeses manufactured respectively in East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Kordestan and Qazvin provinces, in the north-west of Iran. These cheeses are manufactured traditionally from raw ewe or goats’ milk or an appropriate mixture of them without using a starter-culture. Using raw milk for the manufacturing of Lighvan and Koozeh (Koopeh) cheeses provides a specific taste and flavor and increases their marketability. During manufacturing of these types of cheese, lamb or commercial calf rennet is used for coagulating the milk to form the curd. While Lighvan cheese is ripened in the cube form in metal tins containing 10-12% of brine for 3-4 months, Koozeh (Koopeh) cheese is ground after dry salting and put into jugs, and then is ripened underground for 2-3 months. In this chapter, besides discussing the properties of ewes’ and goats’ milk, the manufacturing methods and physicochemical properties of these Iranian traditional cheeses are also explained.
Page: 142-169 (28)
Author: Nayil Dinkci*
The Marmara Region is situated in the north-western part of Turkey. It is a point of juncture between Europe and Asia, thousands of civilizations passed from one continent to the other and left some parts of their cuisines in the region. Some cheese varieties are real artworks; they have to be formed and ripened in the hands of the cheese master. Mihaliç Cheese is one of these cheeses. It is an aged cheese made from high-fat sheep milk in the north western provinces of Balıkesir and Bursa. It’s been made in the region since more than 200 years. Also, the best Lor cheese is made from the whey of Mihaliç cheese. Çerkez Füme is a Circassian smoked cheese produced in the eastern Marmara region. This cheese is usually made from low fat milk, and is fumed with pinewood smoke. Abaza is a semi-hard cheese that is infused with various herbs, the most popular version being with nigella seeds. Ezine, is famed for its highquality Beyaz Peynir variations which are produced from full fat sheep-goat and cow milk mixtures and ripened for at least 6 months. Kirli Hanım cheese, “dirty lady,” is a type of Sepet cheese variety which is produced in Ayvalık region. It is a hard cheese made from a blend of goat, sheep and cow's milk, that is shaped into a basket. Beyaz Peynir and Kaşar cheese are specific cheeses for the Thracian region (Edirne, Tekirdağ) which are now produced conventionally in many parts of Turkey.
Page: 170-198 (29)
Author: Selin Kalkan* and Evrim Gunes Altuntas
Cheese is one of the dairy products consumed throughout the world. For this reason, the production, consumption, and variety of cheeses are increasing day by day. Cheese is a valuable dairy product from the aspects of durability and diversification that can meet the expectations of consumers from every segment of the society. France, Netherlands, and Italy are the first countries that are well-known for their cheese varieties. Moreover, with its wide range of cheese varieties, Turkey is also among these countries. Although the production methods of more than 130 Turkish cheese varieties produced in Turkey are similar, the differences between the cheeses arise from the materials used in production and the regions, in which they are produced / consumed. Each of these cheese varieties has its own unique chemical and sensory qualities including the taste, texture, and appearance. The Black Sea Region extends eastwards alongside the coastline from the east of Sakarya province to the Georgian border. Among the other regions in the country, this region comes to the forefront with its wide range of cheese varieties. There are more than 30 cheese varieties identified in the Black Sea region. The geographical and climatic conditions of this region have significant effects on these cheese varieties. The civil cheese, Imansiz cheese, Kargı tulum cheese, curry cheese, and Kolete cheese are the most popular varieties in the region. This chapter aims to give information about the structure and physical, chemical, and microbiological properties of all the traditional cheese varieties of the Black Sea region.
Page: 199-230 (32)
Author: Asli Çelikel*, Mutlu Buket Akin and Semra Gürbüz
Cheese which dates back to ancient times is an important part of our daily diet. Cheese constitutes 13% of the registered consumption of milk and dairy products worldwide. Our country has a rich variety in terms of both regional cheeses and industrial cheeses. Many traditional cheeses are produced in the Eastern Anatolia Region. The name of some cheeses produced in the region varies according to the locality. Erzincan Tulum cheese, which is commonly produced in Erzincan, Erzurum, Elazığ, Tunceli and Bingöl, is also called Şavak Cheese. One of the traditional cheeses produced in the region is Kars Kashar Cheese. Also, in recent years, the production of Gravyer Cheese in Kars and Ardahan provinces has become widespread. Various plants grown in the Eastern Anatolia Region are used in the traditional cheese production. The first ones of these cheeses are Herby Cheese and Cacik Cheese. Approximately, 70-80% of Herby Cheese is produced in Van. This cheese is called Van Herby cheese. Another traditional cheese produced in Eastern Anatolia Region is Civil cheese which is widely produced in Erzurum. This cheese plays an important role in the formation of taste and aroma of green mould cheese that develops during ripening. Identification, classification and standardization of the characteristics of traditional cheeses produced in the Eastern Anatolian Region and production technologies play an important role in the introduction of these products. For this purpose, production methods, physical and chemical properties of traditional cheeses produced in Eastern Anatolia Region have been compiled in this section.
Page: 231-253 (23)
Author: Mutlu Buket Akin* and Musa Serdar Akin
In Southeastern Anatolia region, various cheese varieties such as Urfa Cheese, Antep Cheese, Diyarbakır Örgü Cheese, Adıyaman Şuji Cheese and Siirt Otlu Cheese are produced from ewe’s and goat’s milk.
Urfa cheese is a semi-hard, white-brined cheese with generally a spherical shape and the diameter of around 5-7 centimetres. Antep cheese is another semi-hard cheese type which is manufactured from ewe’s or goat’s milk or the mixtures of them and stored in brine. This cheese is usually 3-4 cm long and 2 cm thick, rectangular or cube shaped. Diyarbakır Örgü cheese is a hard pasta-filata type cheese variety which is stored in brine. This cheese is made from ewe’s or goat’s milk or the mixtures of them and is like a hair braid is shape. Adıyaman Şuji cheese is a semi-hard, white-brined cheese variety which is made from cow’s milk or sheep’s milk or goat’s milk or the mixtures of them. This cheese is in the form of an accordion-like circle with a diameter of about 7-10 centimetres. Although Otlu cheese is mainly produced in Eastern Anatolia region, it is also produced in Diyarbakır and Siirt villages in the Southeastern Anatolia region. The main difference of these cheeses is Van Otlu cheese is ripened in brine, but Siirt Otlu cheese is ripened without brine. Siirt Otlu cheese is manufactured from ewe’s or goat’s milk and stored in a plastic container or sheep’s skin bag by burying it underground.
Page: 254-276 (23)
Author: Ebru Şenel* and Tuba Şanli
In recent years, methods of production and composition of many traditional cheeses have been determined. There are more than a hundred different types of cheese in Turkey, which are generally classified according to the origin, production methods and ripening conditions. In this paper, 15 different types of cheese produced in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey have been introduced. The most common ones are Konya Küflü (Moldy) cheese, Divle Tulum (animal skin bag) cheese, Gölbaşı Tulum cheese, Çepni Tulum cheese, Ereğli Cloth cheese, Karaman Tulum cheese, Yozgat Çanak (Pot) cheese, Çömlek cheese, Kayseri Çömlek cheese, Niğde Küp (Gödelek) cheese, Sivas Küp cheese, Çankırı Küpecik cheese, and Ayaş Küpecik (Basma) cheese. Two of them, Küp and Tulum cheeses, are more frequently encountered and generally produced from sheep’s milk and goat’s milk. Most of these traditional cheeses have been produced using different manufacturing techniques depending on the geographical location and habits.
Page: 277-306 (30)
Author: Cem Karagözlü* and İlyas Erdem Tonguç
Cheese production has much developed in the Aegean Region, where the Anatolian lands meet the sea. The milk used to make cheese is obtained from the animals that give birth in February and March. In mountainous areas and highlands, this period also covers April and May, and, therefore, goat milk becomes important. Especially, fatty milk is collected in the spring season, after the calves and lambs are born. During this period, ewe’s milk is very fatty and used in combination with cow’s milk. Therefore, ewe’s milk is preferred for cheese production during the spring season. Small ruminants are of importance in the Inner Western Anatolia. Today, technological applications in cheese production, as is the case in many areas, have diversified the cheese production with the modernization of traditionalism. As in the Aegean Region, in many countries, there are numerous cheese types for which traditional production is still preferred and offered to the world market. The factors that affect the taste of cheese range from the properties of grass growing at a different flora where the animal from which the milk was obtained grazed, to production technique, sanitation and hygiene. Unfortunately, it has become harder to find local cheeses in markets with their genuine traditional tastes. At this point, the necessity of reflecting the local tastes obtained through traditional production methods should not be overlooked while making a transition in production techniques, from traditional to modern. Locally the most popular cheese types produced in the Aegean Region are İzmir Tulum Cheese, Sepet Cheese, Kirlihanım Cheese, Kopanesti Cheese, Armola Cheese, Lor Cheese, Tire Çamur Cheese, Aydın Çörekotlu Cheese, Çoban Cheese, Köy Cheese, and Peppered Lor.
Page: 307-336 (30)
Author: Oya Berkay Karaca, Tansu Taspinar* and Mehmet Güven
Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. Traditional cheeses are characterized by strong links to their territory of origin and the culture of the community and considered essential food in the Turkish diet, especially in breakfast for centuries. The mediterranean region of Turkey is quite rich with concerning for traditional cheeses. The objectives of the present review were to introduce traditional cheeses produced in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, to characterize the processing stages of Surk cheese (a kind of moulded herb cheese), Tulum cheese (cheese encased in a skin), Sünme cheese (a semi-hard cheese variety, has a fibered structure and consumed for breakfast), Carra cheese (which means “earthenware jug”, containing mostly black cumin and/or garden thyme), Künefe cheese (fresh unsalted dessert cheese and has melting properties), Hatay Ezme cheese (Leaf or press cheese), Hatay Dil cheese (a string cheese variety with fibrous texture), Isparta Küp cheese, Isparta Dolaz cheese, Burdur Akçakatık cheese (is produced by drying strained yoghurt with or without adding cloves or black cumin), Burdur Keş cheese (is produced by drying of kneaded Cokelek with several aromatic plants and therefore has a special odor and aroma), Adana Lavaş cheese, Karataş Basma cheese with black cumin and Dilim cheese, Hellim cheese and to describe their compositional, chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory characteristics.
Page: 337-362 (26)
Author: Zerrin Erginkaya*, Gözde Konuray and Mihriban Korukluoğlu
Traditional foods are foodstuffs that have been produced for hundreds of years. Besides, being recognised by geography, climate and agricultural production possibilities in all cultures, it is mostly influenced by traditional lifestyle Each of these foodstuffs are original products, created without the use of modern technology, simply by artificially ingraining the key factors of food preservation with available means. Ensuring the preservation and continuity of our traditional food products is one of our important social and cultural heritage from the past; it is important that traditional food products at national and regional scales are identified, inventories are removed, hygienic conditions and modern industrial methods are used to produce safe food, and it is important to move to the future.
The benefits and risks of traditional cheese, especially produced from raw milk, are a complicated issue and have been argued through the years.
The microbiota of traditional cheese varies depending on the raw milk, inoculation applications, environmental factors, cheese production methods and hygienic condition of the environment. Cheese microbiota gives information about the sensory, hygienic, health benefits and possible risks of the product.
In traditional cheeses, depending on the production method, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, several yeasts and molds, especially lactic acid bacteria have been isolated and identified in many research studies. A variety among cheeses, produced from raw milk, occurs due to microorganism diversity, numerical differences, depending on the microbiota involved in the process of maturation, thereby showing changes in some of its characteristics (such as aroma formation, antimicrobial activity). Therefore, the taste of cheese produced from raw milk is more dense and richer than the processed ones.
In addition, microbiota found in traditional cheese is known to positively affect the aroma development and production of antimicrobial metabolites against pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in the same environment. On the other hand, other allergic reactions, toxic and chemical compounds, which are important with regard to food safety, are substantial for health, besides the microbial risks based on raw milk.
For these reasons, the scientific data on the production and consumption of traditional cheeses should be accurately investigated in terms of benefits, harm and possible new risks, using the omic system as well as cheese ecosystem now and in the future.
Page: 363-372 (10)
Author: Celile Aylin Oluk and Oya Berkay Karaca
This book serves as a treatise on lesser known ethnic varieties of cheese made in regions ranging from Mesopotamia to Europe and America. Cheese experts from different countries including Brazil, Croatia, Iran, Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey bring together a rich blend of information about the traditional cheese in each region. The contributors describe the chemical and microbial characteristics, production technology and artisan culture of cheese making for each local variety. <p></p> The simple and systematic presentation of the information makes this a useful reference for a wide readership interested in food, dairy technology, and gastronomy, such as producers, consumers, academics and students. The book also represents an effort to bring forth knowledge about a culinary facet of the concrete cultural heritage of local communities which can benefit tourism and sustainability programs that involve the promotion of traditional dairy products. <p></p> [Series intro] <p></p> Current Developments in Food and Nutrition Research is a reference series intended for a multidisciplinary readership (researchers, students, and general readers) interested in subjects ranging from food science and technology to nutritional biochemistry and gastronomy.