Nowadays, the advances in knowledge about oncologic treatment have led to an increase in survival rate for cancer patients and, consequently, a growing concern about the adverse effects of treatment in medium and long term, in order to ensure the future quality of life. For male patients in reproductive age or younger, one of the key concerns after cancer therapy is their ability to father children, since anticancer drugs exert cytotoxic effects on germ cells. Considering the incidence of cancer in children and adolescents and the vulnerability of these developmental phases to chemical injuries, this review is an attempt to highlight the importance of juvenile experimental models to test new anticancer drugs and agents with protective action. There is a relative scarcity of studies investigating the effects of chemotherapy in juvenile animals and an urgent need for further information. As far as this review was able to recover, available data about reproductive toxicology related to peripubertal treatment with anticancer drugs includes only the following pharmaceuticals: toposide, doxorrubicin, cisplatin, ciclophosphamide, cytarabine, flutamide and procarbazine. Together with the evaluation of adverse effects of anticancer drugs, is necessary to investigate possible protective agents to be pre-, co-, or post administrated with chemotherapy. Modern technologies and increasing knowledge about the cancer biology have allowed studies of new chemotherapy strategies, more effective and selective. Many of these compounds are derived from toxins and metabolites of microorganisms, plants, and animals, being a number of them isolated from marine sources, a relatively unexplored environment. Investment in research programs in bioprospecting, especially in marine environments, and pharmaceutical field, including toxicology risk evaluation, are crucial to discovery and improve new anticancer treatments.