Vascular Dementia (VaD) occurs due to cerebrovascular insufficiency, which leads to decreased blood circulation to the brain, thereby resulting in mental disabilities. The main causes of Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) are severe hypoperfusion, stroke, hypertension, large vessel disease (cortical), small Vessel Disease (subcortical VaD), strategic infarct, hemorrhage (microbleed), Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA), which leads to decreased cerebrovascular perfusion. Many metabolic disorders such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocysteinemia are also related to VaD. The rodent experimental models provide a better prospective for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of new drugs. A plethora of experimental models are available that mimic the pathological conditions and lead to VaD. This review article updates the current knowledge on the basis of VaD, risk factors, pathophysiology, mechanism, advantages, limitations, and the modification of various available rodent experimental models.